Comparison of pitot traverses taken at varying distances downstream of obstructions.
Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1999 Mar/Apr; 60(2):165-174
This study determined the deviations between pitot traverses taken under "ideal" conditions--at least seven duct diameter's lengths (i.e., distance = 7D) from obstructions, elbows, junction fittings, and other disturbances to flows--with those taken downstream from commonplace disturbances. Two perpendicular 10-point, log-linear velocity pressure traverses were taken at various distances downstream of tested upstream conditions. Upstream conditions included a plain duct opening, a junction fitting, a single 90 degrees elbow, and two elbows rotated 90 degrees from each other into two orthogonal planes. Airflows determined from those values were compared with the values measured more than 40D downstream of the same obstructions under ideal conditions. The ideal measurements were taken on three traverse diameters in the same plane separated by 120 degrees in honed drawn-over-mandrel tubing. In all cases the pitot tubes were held in place by devices that effectively eliminated alignment errors and insertion depth errors. Duct velocities ranged from 1500 to 4500 ft/min. Results were surprisingly good if one employed two perpendicular traverses. When the averages of two perpendicular traverses was taken, deviations from ideal value were 6% or less even for traverses taken as close as 2D distance from the upstream disturbances. At 3D distance, deviations seldom exceeded 5%. With single diameter traverses, errors seldom exceeded 5% at 6D or more downstream from the disturbance. Interestingly, percentage deviations were about the same at high and low velocities. This study demonstrated that two perpendicular pitot traverses can be taken as close as 3D from these disturbances with acceptable (< or = 5%) deviations from measurements taken under ideal conditions.
Ventilation; Industrial-ventilation; Ventilation-systems; Exhaust-systems; Exhaust-ventilation; Air-flow; Air-contamination; Airborne-particles; Dust-analysis; Dust-collection; Dust-control-equipment; Dust-exposure; Dust-inhalation; Dust-particles; Dust-sampling; Dusts; Measurement-equipment;
Author Keywords: pitot traverses; ventilation
University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Box 357234, Seattle, WA 98195-7234
Research Tools and Approaches: Intervention Effectiveness Research
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal
University of Washington, Department of Environmental Health, Seattle, WA