Wrist and forearm postures of users of conventional computer keyboards.
Simoneau-GG; Marklin-RW; Monroe-JF
Hum Factors 1999 Sep; 41(3):413-424
The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive investigation to document wrist and forearm postures of users of conventional computer keyboards. We instrumented 90 healthy, experienced clerical workers with electromechanical goniometers to measure wrist and forearm position and range of motion for both upper extremities while typing. For an alphabetic typing task, the left wrist showed significantly greater (p < .01) mean ulnar deviation (15.0 degrees +/- 7.7 degrees) and extension (21.2 degrees +/- 8.8 degrees) than the right wrist (10.1 degrees +/- 7.2 degrees and 17.0 degrees +/- 7.4 degrees for ulnar deviation and extension, respectively). Conversely, the right forearm had greater mean pronation (65.6 degrees +/- 8.3 degrees) than the left forearm (62.2 degrees +/- 10.6 degrees). We noted minimal functional differences in the postures of the wrists and forearms between alphabetic and alphanumeric typing tasks. Ergonomists should consider the statistically significant and probable practical difference in wrist and forearm posture between the left and right hand in ergonomic interventions in the office and in the design of computer keyboards. Actual or potential applications of this research include guiding the design of new computer keyboards.
Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Repetitive-work; Office-workers; Keyboard-operators; Cumulative-trauma-disorders; Humans; Equipment-design; Human-factors-engineering; Ergonomics
Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881
Marquette University, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin