Glove permeation tests using novel microchemical techniques for 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) derivatives.
Lin-YW; Que Hee-SS
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 1999 May; 36(4):485-489
The aim was to assess the permeation of different herbicide emulsion concentrate formulations of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as 60.8 and 83.5% butoxyethyl ester (BEE) and 46.8% dimethyl amine salt (DMAS) through four types of glove materials (lined unsupported nitrile, unlined unsupported butyl, Silver Shield laminate, and Viton). This entailed the development of new microchemical techniques to allow sensitive capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) of the permeated herbicide. The 2,4-D DMAS was esterified to the methyl ester by boron trifluoride-methanol complex with 99.2 +/- 3.7% efficiency using microwave heating to minimize reaction time and to process microsamples. The GC/MS detection limit was 5 ng/ml (ppb) of 2,4-D DMAS in the collection medium. The permeates from the ester formulations were analyzed directly for the ester above the detection limit of 9 ng/ml (ppb) BEE. The permeation investigations utilized the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)-type permeation cells with liquid collection media. The results showed that these gloves could provide at least 6 h protection for these formulations.
Gas-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Molecular-structure; Protective-clothing; Protective-materials; Personal-protection; Herbicides; Microchemistry
Department of Environmental Health Sciences and UCLA Center for Occupational and Environmental Health, UCLA School of Public Health, 10833 Le Conte Ave., Los Angeles, California 90095-1772
Research Tools and Approaches: Intervention Effectiveness Research
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
University of California, School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, 10333 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1772