Environmental arsenic exposure and sputum metalloproteinase concentrations.
Josyula AB; Poplin GS; Kurzius-Spencer M; McClellen HE; Kopplin MJ; Sturup S; Clark Lantz R; Burgess JL
Environ Res 2006 Nov; 102(3):283-290
Exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with an increased rate of lung cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether arsenic exposure at relatively low concentrations ( approximately 20mug/L) is associated with changes in biomarkers of lung inflammation, as measured by the ratio of sputum metalloproteinase and antiproteinase activity. A total of 73 subjects residing in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) were measured in induced sputum. Household tap water arsenic levels in Ajo (20.3+/-3.7mug/L) were higher than in those Tucson (4.0+/-2.3mug/L), as were mean urinary total inorganic arsenic levels (29.1+/-20.4 and 11.0+/-12.0mug/L, respectively). Log-normalized MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 concentrations in sputum were not significantly different between towns. However, after adjusting for town, asthma, diabetes, urinary monomethylarsonic acid/inorganic arsenic, and smoking history, total urinary arsenic was negatively associated with MMP-2 and TIMP-1 levels in sputum and positively associated with the ratio of MMP-2/TIMP-1 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 in sputum. Increased sputum proteinase/antiproteinase activity suggests a potential toxic mechanism for low-level arsenic exposure.
Arsenic-compounds; Arsenates; Arsenites; Environmental-exposure; Drinking-water; Lung-cancer; Cancer; Exposure-assessment; Biomarkers; Lung-irritants; Lung-disorders
University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona