G-actin as a risk factor and modulatable endpoint for cancer chemoprevention trials.
Hemstreet-GP; Rao-J; Hurst-RE; Bonner-RB; Waliszewski-P; Grossman-HB; Liebert-M; Bane-BL
J Cell Biochem Suppl 1996 Jan; 25:197-204
Because tumorigenesis is an ongoing process, biomarkers can be used to identify individuals at risk for bladder cancer, and treatment of those at risk to prevent or slow further progression could be an effective means of cancer control given accurate individual risk assessment. Tumorigenesis proceeds through a series of defined phenotypic changes, including those in genetically altered cells destined to become cancer as well as in surrounding normal cells responding to the altered cytokine environment. A panel of biomarkers for the changes can provide a useful system for individual risk assessment in cancer patients and in individuals exposed to carcinogens. The use of such markers can increase the specificity of chemoprevention trials by targeting therapy to patients likely to respond, and thereby markedly reduce the costs of the trials. Previous studies in our laboratories showed the cytoskeletal proteins G- and F-actin reflect differentiation-related changes in cells undergoing tumorigenesis and in adjacent "field" cells, and a pattern of low F-actin and high G-actin is indicative of increased risk. Actin changes may be a common feature in genetic and epigenetic carcinogenic mechanisms. In a group of over 1600 workers exposed to benzidine, G-actin correlated with exposure, establishing it as an early marker of effect. In another study, a profile of biomarkers was monitored in patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and received Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and/or DMSO. The primary objective was to determine how the defined biomarkers expressed in the tumor and the field correlate with clinical response and recurrence. DMSO, known to modulate G-actin in vitro, was used as an agent. Results strongly support the hypothesis that cytosolic G-actin levels measured by quantitative fluorescence image analysis (QFIA) can be an important intermediate endpoint marker for chemoprevention and that the p300 (M344) and DNA ploidy markers identify a high-risk group that requires more aggressive therapy and recurrence monitoring. Further research with other markers has shown that DD23 and nuclear actin, both of which identify late, specific changes, may increase the battery of useful markers. Taken together these studies show how biomarkers are employed to study individuals at risk, aid in the selection of chemopreventive compounds and assist in the understanding of the pathogenesis of malignancy.
Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Cancer; Chemotherapy; Tumorigens; Tumorigenesis; Bladder-cancer; Biomarkers; Carcinogens; Carcinogenesis; Carcinogenicity; Exposure-assessment
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Supplement
University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma