NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of soy formula.
Rozman-KK; Bhatia-J; Calafat-AM; Chambers-C; Culty-M; Etzel-RA; Flaws-JA; Hansen-DK; Hoyer-PB; Jeffery-EH; Kesner-JS; Marty-S; Thomas-JA; Umbach-D
Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol 2006 Aug; 77(4):280-397
The National Toxicology Program (NTP) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) established the NTP Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) in June 1998. The purpose of the Center is to provide timely, unbiased, scientifically sound evaluations of human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development caused by agents to which humans may be exposed. Soy formula was selected for expert panel evaluation because of public concern for the possible health effects. Soy formula contains soy protein isolates and is fed to infants as a supplement to or replacement for human milk or cow milk. Soy protein isolates contain phytoestrogens that occur naturally in some legumes, especially soybeans. Phytoestrogens are non-steroidal, estrogenic compounds. In plants, nearly all phytoestrogens are bound to sugar molecules and these phytoestrogen-sugar complexes are not hormonally active. Phytoestrogens are found in many food products in addition to soy formula, especially soy-based foods such as tofu, soy milk, and in some over-the-counter dietary supplements.
Toxic-effects; Toxins; Toxicology; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Reproduction; Reproductive-system
Disease and Injury: Fertility and Pregnancy Abnormalities
Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology