To obtain sustained injury surveillance data for youth on farms, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Childhood Agricultural Injury Survey (CAIS) in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The first CAIS collected data for youth less than 20 years in 1998 through a regionally stratified telephone survey of 50,000 U.S. farm households; a second CAIS for 2001 was conducted using the same methodology. In 2001, there were approximately 1.2 million youth living on U.S. farms. These youth suffered an estimated 19,397 injuries (15.7/1,000 household youth). Approximately 60% (11,571) of the household youth injuries were to males. For all household youth, 10-15 year olds experienced the most injuries (49%, 9,486). In addition to providing estimates of demographics, injuries, and injury rates for household youth from the 2001 CAIS, this article provides a comparison to results from the 1998 CAIS. The number of household youth injuries on farms from 1998 to 2001 decreased by almost 30% (27,321 vs. 19,397). The results of this study show an overall decrease in the injury rate for youth living on the farm from 1998 to 2001 (18.8/1,000 household youth vs. 15.7/1,000 household youth). However, there was a considerable increase in the number of injuries to household females less than 20 years of age during this same time period. There was also an increase in the number of all terrain vehicle (ATV) and horse-related injuries. Continued surveillance is needed to assess if these are significant trends or the result of changing farm demographics.