Vacuum sampling techniques for industrial hygienists, with emphasis on beryllium dust sampling.
Creek-KL; Whitney-G; Ashley-K
J Environ Monit 2006 Jun; 8(6):612-618
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Rule, 10 CFR Part 850 became effective in 2000 in response to the prevalence of Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD) in workers. The rule requires surface and air monitoring for beryllium to determine exposure levels and the evaluation of the effectiveness of controls used to minimize or eliminate that risk. The most common methods for surface sampling use wet or dry wipes. Wipe sampling techniques may be impractical for many surfaces common to most buildings such as cinder block, textured wall surfaces, fabric and carpet. Vacuum sampling methods have been developed for the evaluation of lead or pesticides on residential surfaces such as carpets, bare floors and window sills. However, the current vacuum methods may be impractical for many workplace situations such as sampling of protective clothing, complex facility structures, or equipment surfaces. Recent work using vacuum sampling for potential bio-terrorism agents such as anthrax spores may have significant application to industrial hygiene evaluations of the workplace and may be extendable for use in sampling of metals such as beryllium. Validated vacuum sampling methods that provide meaningful data would be of great value to industrial hygienists in identifying areas having surface contamination, evaluating existing controls and work practices and determining the potential of toxic material on surfaces to become airborne and present a potential risk to workers and the public. This article discusses various vacuum sampling methodologies and recommends harmonization of sampling methods.
Sampling; Sampling-methods; Industrial-hygienists; Beryllium-compounds; Dusts; Dust-sampling; Dust-particles; Beryllium-disease; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-diseases; Diseases; Exposure-levels; Exposure-assessment; Air-monitoring; Metals
Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, M.S. D454, Bikini Atoll Road, SM-30, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
Journal of Environmental Monitoring