A comparison of x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical analysis of air filter samples from a lead/zinc/silver ore concentrator mill.
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 13-16, 2006, Chicago, Illinois. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2006 May; :40
Lead is mined in association with zinc and silver. The ore is concentrated on site by crushing and differential flotation before being sent to a primary smelter. Personal and area samples for airborne lead were taken at a lead mine concentrator mill. Zinc and iron were also present in all the airborne dusts. Samplers used included the closed-face 37mm filter cassette (the current U.S. standard method for lead sampling), the 37mm GSP or "cone" sampler, the 25mm Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable sampler, the 25mm button sampler, and the open-face 25mm cassette. The mixed cellulose-ester filters were analyzed after sampling for their content of various metals, particularly lead, using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer, and then were extracted with acid and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The 25-mm filters were analyzed using a single XRF reading, while three readings on different parts of the filter were taken from the 37-mm filters. For lead, all five samplers gave good correlations (r2 > 0.96) between the two analytical methods over the entire range of found lead mass, which encompassed the PEL enforced by MSHA. Linear regression on the results from most samplers gave almost 1:1 correlations without additional correction, indicating an absence of matrix effects from the other metals. As in previous studies, the best results were obtained with the GSP sampler using the average of three readings, with all XRF results within 20% of the corresponding ICP values and a slope very close to 1 (0.99). Greater than 95% of XRF results were within 20% of the corresponding ICP values for the closed-face 37mm cassette using an algorithm developed by OSHA. A considerable portion of total particulate aspiration was found deposited the interior walls of all samplers that possessed a suitable internal surface.
X-ray-fluorescence-analysis; Air-filters; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Lead-compounds; Zinc-compounds; Silver-compounds; Airborne-particles; Airborne-dusts; Metals; Filters; Filtration; Analytical-methods; Particulates; Particulate-dust
7439-92-1; 7440-66-6; 7440-22-4
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 13-16, 2006, Chicago, Illinois