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Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-2002-0340, Lake Norman, North Carolina.

McCammon JB
Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, HETA 2002-0340, 2002 Oct; :1-14
On July 8th, 2002, the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) requested technical assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in conducting an investigation of carbon monoxide (CO) exposures among recreational boaters participating in the "Raft Off" event to be held on July 27th at Lake Norman in North Carolina. NIOSH responded to the request by measuring CO concentrations on boats during this event, assisting NCEH and the North Carolina Department of Health with measurements of CO concentrations in exhaled breath among lake visitors that either participated in the event or in other recreational activities. As NCEH is responsible for analysis and reporting of the data from the exhaled breath analyses, the purpose of this letter is to transmit the results of airborne CO measurements. Data presented in this letter provide snapshots of CO concentrations outside (and in one case inside) of boats of various types during a recreational boating day. The "raft off" is not a typical boating activity, and it is difficult to say if the exposures of participants during the event are representative. Measurements of CO on boats during this event and on other waterbodies confirmed again that rafting of boats with operating side-exhausted generators presents a significant risk of exposure to high concentrations of CO for boat occupants. Based on these potential exposures and the severity of the possible consequences of these exposures, we recommend that boat operators immediately deactivate all internal combustion engines as quickly as possible when rafting up in the manner described here.
Region-4; Hazard-Confirmed; Exhaust-gases; Exhaust-systems; Engineering-controls; Control-technology; Toxic-gases; Equipment-design; Boat-manufacturing-industry; Poison-gases; Combustion-gases; Combustion-engines; Combustion-products
Publication Date
Document Type
Field Studies; Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance
Fiscal Year
Identifying No.
NIOSH Division
Source Name
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division