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Soft-tissue pathomechanics.

The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Second Edition, Fundamentals and Assessment Tools for Occupational Ergonomics. Marras WS, Karwowski W, eds., Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 2006 Jan; :15-1--15-43
There has been much work in the area of exercise-induced muscle injury over the past 30 years. The relation between factors such as force, range of motion, number of repetitions, exposure duration, velocity, age, gender, and training on muscle injury have been studied and have a clear occupational relevance. Also, the cellular mechanisms responsible for the injury and repair processes have been well studied to date. The relation between muscle function, myofiber damage, pain, and molecular indicators of injury have also been studied. Clearly, more work needs to be done in this area, particularly regarding the physiological response to long-term repetitive loading. The findings to date indicate that eccentric muscle actions result in muscle damage and recovery from this injury can require up to 1 month. Increasing the bi mechanical exposure such as force, number of repetitions, and range of motion can exacerbate the magnitude of injury response. Increased age can also increase injury susceptibility. The encouraging news is that training can reduce the injurious response and adaptation can take place, particularly if the appropriate rest intervals are included. There are biomarkers currently being studied that may indicate the evidence of myofiber injury that have the appropriate level of sensitivity and specificity needed for occupational monitoring. The area of soft-tissue pathomechanics can provide a wealth of information that will be of value to ergonomists and occupational health professionals in the quest to reduce the incidence of occupational musculoskeletal disorders.
Tissue-culture; Injuries; Muscles; Muscle-tissue; Physiological-response; Repetitive-work; Demographic-characteristics; Age-factors; Training; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Muscular-disorders; Skeletal-system; Models
Publication Date
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Marras-WS; Karwowski-W
Fiscal Year
NIOSH Division
Priority Area
Disease and Injury: Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Extremities
Source Name
The Occupational Ergonomics Handbook, Second Edition, Fundamentals and Assessment Tools for Occupational Ergonomics
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division