Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for methyl ethyl ketone in F344 rats.
Thrall-KD; Soelberg-JJ; Weitz-KK; Woodstock-AD
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2002 Jul; 65(13):881-896
A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) in rats was developed. Partition coefficients were experimentally determined in rat tissues and blood samples using an in vitro vial equilibration technique. These solubility ratios were in agreement with previous human-based estimates that MEK is uniformly soluble within all tissues. The in vivo metabolism of MEK was evaluated using groups of three F344 male rats exposed to 100-2000 ppm MEK in a closed, recirculating gas uptake system. An optimal fit of a family of uptake curves was obtained by adjusting Michaelis-Menten metabolic constants, Km (affinity), and Vmax (capacity) using the PBPK model. At the highest chamber concentration, the uptake curve could not be modeled without the addition of a first-order (Kfo) metabolic pathway. Pretreatment with pyrazole, an inhibitor of oxidative microsomal metabolism, decreased the slope of the gas uptake curve but did not abolish metabolism. Optimal model fit to the gas uptake curve from pyrazole-pretreated animals required the apparent Km to be increased roughly 50 times the value determined in naive rats. The completed PBPK model was evaluated against real-time exhaled breath data collected from rats receiving an intravenous (iv) injection of MEK via a jugular vein cannula. Model simulation of the iv-treated animals required alveolar ventilation to be reduced 30% in order to match the data. Exhaled breath profiles from animals treated with MEK by oral gavage or intraperitoneal (ip) injection were evaluated and absorption rates was determined. Development of a comprehensive PBPK model for MEK in rats is the first step toward future extrapolations to apply to humans.
Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Exposure-levels; Solvents; Breathing-atmospheres; Lung-function; Lung-tissue; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system
Molecular Biosciences Department, Fundamental Science Division, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352
1330-20-7; 13463-67-7; 108-88-3
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
Battelle Memorial Institute, Richland, Washington