Carcinogen biomonitoring in human exposures and laboratory research: validation and application to human occupational exposures.
Talaska G; Maier A; Henn S; Booth-Jones A; Tsuneoka Y; Vermeulen R; Schumann BL
Toxicol Lett 2002 Aug; 134(1-3):39-49
A multiple biomarker approach is required to integrate for metabolism, temporal response and exposure-response kinetics, biological relevance, and positive predictive value. Carcinogen DNA adduct analysis can be used in animal and in vitro studies to detect absorption permutations caused by mixture interactions, and to control metabolic variation when specific CYP450 genes (1A1 or 1A2) are knocked out. These enzymes are not critical to the metabolic activation of model Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC) and aromatic amines, respectively, as suggested by in vitro analysis. Several human studies have been carried out where multiple biomarkers have been measured. In a study of benzidine workers, the similarities in elimination kinetics between urinary metabolites and mutagenicity is likely responsible for a better correlation between these markers than to BZ-DNA adducts in exfoliated cells. In a study of rubber workers, the relationship between specific departments, urinary 1 HP and DNA adducts in exfoliated cells coincided with the historical urinary bladder cancer risk in these departments; the same relationship did not hold for urinary mutagenicity. In a study of automotive mechanics, biomarkers were used to monitor the effectiveness of exposure interventions. These data reinforce the notion that carcinogen biomarkers are useful to monitor exposure, but that a complementary approaches involving effect and perhaps susceptibility biomarkers is necessary to obtain the necessary information.
Polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Polycyclic-hydrocarbons; Skin-exposure; Animal-studies; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Metabolic-study; In-vitro-studies; Urogenital-system-disorders
The Department of Environmental Health, The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267-0056
Research Tools and Approaches: Risk Assessment Methods
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio