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Advances in aerosol sampling science and its practical applications.
J Aerosol Sci 1998 Sep; 29(Suppl 2):S1085-S1086
Aerosol sampling is carried out for a wide range of purposes, ranging from sampling in relation to environmental and climatological effects from aircraft high in the earth's atmosphere, to sampling in relation to human exposures and associated health effects in terrestrial living and working environments. Our level of understanding in aerosol mechanics over the past few decades has taught us that, in the act of withdrawing a sample of an aerosol from a particleladen atmosphere, the particle size distribution of the sampled aerosol may change significantly. In a given situation, therefore, the question then is: how has it changed and how representative is the collected sample of the aerosol of interest? Practical aerosol samplers come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes, ranging from the more idealised sharp-edged probes of the type used for sampling in stacks and ducts and from aircraft, to the more complex, blunt configurations used in occupational and environmental hygiene. We know that the air movement near any of these samplers is distorted by the presence and aspirating action of the sampler. This in turn influences the motion of suspended particles both outside the sampler and inside it as particles are being transported to the sensing zone or filter (e.g., by the effects of inertial, gravitational and electrostatic forces). Aerosol sampling science has striven to understand the nature of such effects so that samplers can be designed to either (a) minimise or reduce them, or (b) control them in a way that makes sampling performance match a given particle size-selective criterion. A considerable body of work has emerged over the years, including notably the recent mathematical studies of Derek Ingham, Sarah Dunnett, Derek Dunn-Rankin and Nurtan Esmen, and experimental studies from the laboratories of Klaus Willeke, Genady Lipatov, David Mark, Trevor Ogden, William Hinds and others (including the author).
Aerosols; Aerosol-sampling; Aerosol-particles; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Exposure-assessment; Occupational-exposure; Occupational-health
Department of Environmental and Industrial Health, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, 109 S. Observatory Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Journal of Aerosol Science
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota