Occupational and environmental health: recognizing and preventing disease and injury, 5th edition. Levy BS, Wegman DH, Baron SL, Sokas RK, eds. Philadelphia PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005 Nov; :471-487
Occupational injuries are caused by acute exposure in the workplace to physical agents such as mechanical energy, electricity, chemicals, and ionizing radiation, or from sudden lack of essential agents, such as oxygen or heat. Examples of events that can lead to worker injury include motor vehicle crashes, assaults, falls, being caught in parts of machinery, being struck by tools or objects, and electrocutions. Resultant injuries include fractures, lacerations, abrasions, burns, amputations, poisonings, and damage to internal organs. Occupational and nonoccupational injuries are a serious public health problem. More than 5,500 workers died from occupational injuries in the United States in 2002. Another 4.4 million workers sustained nonfatal injuries in 2002; this estimate is conservative because it relies on employer reporting and excludes important groups of workers, such as the self-employed, workers on small farms, and government employees. An estimated 3.9 million workers were treated in an emergency department for a work-related injury or illness in 1999, with an estimated 70,100 of these workers being hospitalized. Although these data include illnesses, more than 90 percent are injuries. The direct cost of serious occupational injuries and illnesses in the United States in 2001 was $45.8 billion; this amount includes only wages and medical payments to workers whose injuries resulted in more than 5 days away from work.
Injuries; Acute-exposure; Occupational-exposure; Workers; Mechanical-properties; Electricity; Ionizing-radiation; Radiation-exposure; Heat-exposure; Health-hazards; Traumatic-injuries; Employees; Employee-exposure; Employee-health; Mortality-rates; Mortality-data; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Surveillance