Urinary hexane diamine to assess respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate aerosol: a human inhalation study.
Liu-Y; Berode-M; Stowe-MH; Holm-CT; Walsh-FX; Slade-MD; Boeniger-MF; Redlich-CA
Int J Occup Environ Health 2004 Jul; 10(3):262-271
The use of urinary hexane diamine (HDA) as a biomarker to assess human respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol was evaluated. Twenty-three auto body shop workers were exposed to HDI biuret aerosol for two hours using a closed exposure apparatus. HDI exposures were quantified using both a direct-reading instrument and a treated-filter method. Urine samples collected at baseline, immediately post exposure, and every four to five hours for up to 20 hours were analyzed for HDA using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean urinary HDA (microg/g creatinine) sharply increased from the baseline value of 0.7 to 18.1 immediately post exposure and decreased rapidly to 4.7, 1.9 and 1.1, respectively, at 4, 9, and 18 hours post exposure. Considerable individual variability was found. Urinary HDA can assess acute respiratory exposure to HDI aerosol, but may have limited use as a biomarker of exposure in the workplace.
Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Automobile-repair-shops; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Pulmonary-function; Biomarkers; Hexanes; Isocyanates
Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06510-2283
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut