Cloning and developmental analysis of murid spermatid-specific thioredoxin-2 (SPTRX-2), a novel sperm fibrous sheath protein and autoantigen.
Miranda-Vizuete-A; Tsang-K; Yu-Y; Jimenez-A; Pelto-Huikko-M; Flickinger-CJ; Sutovsky-P; Oko-R
J Biol Chem 2003 Nov; 278(45):44874-44885
Thioredoxins compose a growing family of proteins that participate in different cellular processes via redox-mediated reactions. We report here the cloning, developmental expression, and location of murid Sptrx-2. Mouse and rat SPTRX-2 proteins display a high homology to their human ortholog in the thioredoxin and NDP kinase domains, and the coding genes are located at syntenic positions. Northern blotting and in situ hybridization confirmed the testis-specific expression of murine Sptrx-2 mRNA, mostly in round spermatids. Immunohistochemical analysis of the 19 steps of rat spermiogenesis showed that SPTRX-2 expression becomes prominent in the cytoplasmic lobe of step 15-18 spermatids and diminishes in step 19 just before spermiation. However, in the spermatid tail, SPTRX-2 immunoreactivity increased from step 15 to 19 and was confined to the principal piece. By immunogold electron microscopy, SPTRX-2 was first detected scattered throughout the cytoplasm of the axoneme in step 14-15 spermatids, but began to be incorporated by step 16 into the fibrous sheath (FS). During steps 17-18, the labeling increased over the ribs and columns of the assembled FS. It peaked in step 19 and remained in the FS of epididymal spermatozoa. Immunoblots of isolated FS obtained from spermatozoa confirmed that SPTRX-2 is an integral component of the FS and a post-obstruction autoantigen in vasectomized rats. Our data indicate that SPTRX-2 incorporation into the FS lags well behind FS assembly, suggesting it is required during the final stages of sperm tail maturation in the testis and/or epididymis, where extensive disulfide bonding of FS proteins occurs.
Spermatozoa; Spermatogenesis; Proteins; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Amino-acids; Humans; Genes; Genetic-factors
Journal of Biological Chemistry