Cytokine polymorphisms and immunotoxicology.
Yucesoy-B; Johnson-VJ; Luster-MI
Encyclopedic Reference of Immunotoxicology. Vohr HW, ed., New York: Springer-Verlag, 2005 Jun; :174-176
A polymorphism is a variation in DNA sequence that has an allele frequency of at least 1% in the population. There are several types of polymorphisms in the genome: single nucleotide polymorphisms, repeat polymorphisms, and insertions or deletions, ranging from a single base pair to thousands of base pairs in size. Most of the DNA sequence variation in the human genome is in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms, or SNPs, which result from single-base changes that substitute one nucleotide for another. The vast majority of the polymorphisms in cytokine genes are of the SNP variety. Polymorphisms in cytokine genes can have profound influences on their expression and thus impact inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. Research over the past several years has implicated that, similar to polymorphism in drug metabolizing enzymes respond differently to toxins, cytokine polymorphisms modify xenobiotic-induced immunotoxicity and immune-mediated disease processes.
Humans; Nucleotides; Genes; Immune-system-disorders; Diseases; Toxins; Toxic-effects
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Book or book chapter
Encyclopedic Reference of Immunotoxicology