Fine particle number and mass concentration measurements in urban Indian households.
Mönkkönen-P; Pai-P; Maynard-A; Lehtinen-KEJ; Hämeri-K; Rechkemmer-P; Ramachandran-G; Prasad-B; Kulmala-M
Sci Total Environ 2005 Jul; 347(1-3):131-147
Fine particle number concentration (D(p)>10 nm, cm(-3)), mass concentrations (approximation of PM(2.5), microg m(-3)) and indoor/outdoor number concentration ratio (I/O) measurements have been conducted for the first time in 11 urban households in India, 2002. The results indicate remarkable high indoor number and mass concentrations and I/O number concentration ratios caused by cooking. Besides cooking stoves that used liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or kerosene as the main fuel, high indoor concentrations can be explained by poor ventilation systems. Particle number concentrations of more than 300,000 cm(-3) and mass concentrations of more than 1000 microg m(-3) were detected in some cases. When the number and mass concentrations during cooking times were statistically compared, a correlation coefficient r>0.50 was observed in 63% of the households. Some households used other fuels like wood and dung cakes along with the main fuel, but also other living activities influenced the concentrations. In some areas, outdoor combustion processes had a negative impact on indoor air quality. The maximum concentrations observed in most cases were due to indoor combustion sources. Reduction of exposure risk and health effects caused by poor indoor air in urban Indian households is possible by improving indoor ventilation and reducing penetration of outdoor particles.
Demographic-characteristics; Racial-factors; Ventilation; Ventilation-systems; Household-workers; Fuels; Air-quality; Indoor-air-pollution; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Aerosols; Indoor-environmental-quality
P. Mönkkönen, University of Helsinki, Department of Physical Sciences, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki, Finland
Science of the Total Environment
University of Minnesota Twin Cities