A study of the effect of chrysotile fiber surface composition on genotoxity in vitro.
Keane-MJ; Stephens-JW; Zhong-BZ; Miller-WE; Ong-TM; Wallace-WE
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 1999 Aug; 57(8):529-541
Chrysotile fibers (NIEHS intermediate length) were treated with ultrapure HCl to alter the fiber surface chemistry without substantially changing fiber morphology or dimensions. The objective of the study was to determine whether fiber surface chemistry is an important variable in fiber genotoxicity in vitro. The modified fibers, along with native chrysotile fibers, were used to challenge Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) in vitro using the micronucleus induction genotoxicity assay. Fiber dimensions were assessed using scanning electron microscopy by measuring the distribution of fiber lengths in 3 length ranges: less than 3 mum, 3-10 mum, and greater than 10 mum. For both treated and native fiber samples, 500 fibers were examined. Results indicate that acid-treated fibers were about 20% shorter than untreated chrysotile. Surface chemistry alterations were verified by zeta-potential reversal, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) elemental analysis. Scanning Auger spectrometry indicated the presence of Mg, O, and Si in both treated and native chrysotile samples, which confirmed the surface purity of both fiber samples. Both XPS and SEM-EDS analysis demonstrated substantial depletion of Mg from fiber surfaces. Results of the micronucleus assay showed a positive concentration-related response for both samples, with toxicity evident only at the highest concentration. No significant difference was found for the treated and untreated chrysotile samples. These results indicate that the surface chemistry is not an important variable in the in vitro genotoxicity of chrysotile asbestos in V79 cells as detected by the micronucleus assay under the conditions used in this study, and support a model of chemically nonspecific chromosomal and spindle damage effects.
Fiber-deposition; Surface-properties; Spectrographic-analysis; Statistical-analysis; Analytical-chemistry; Analytical-processes; In-vitro-studies; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Asbestos-dust; Asbestos-fibers; Airborne-fibers; Airborne-dusts; Airborne-particles; Asbestosis; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respirable-dust; Respiratory-system-disorders; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-cancer; Lung-fibrosis
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues