Overview of fire detection technology for underground mines.
28th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Sinaia, Romania, June 7-11, 1999. Pterosani, Romania: National Institute for Mining Safety and Explosion Proof Protection, 1999 Jun; 1:299-316
When methods to prevent the occurrence of fire in underground mines fail, the next line of defense in order to protect life and minimize the consequences of fire is to rapidly and reliably detect the developing fire so that subsequent evacuation and control procedures can be safely and successfully implemented. To provide this capability requires an understanding of the operational principles of different types of fire sensors, their merits as well as their limitations, and performance characteristics of the monitoring systems that control and process sensor data, an understanding of how fires develop and the different types of fires that can occur along with their characteristics and the hazards they present, an understanding of the impact of the mine environment and routine mining activities, not only in terms of these effects on fire sensors but also in terms of the impact of mine ventilation and mine geometry on fire growth, fire characteristics and the detection process. .All of these factors are components of the technology of fire detection, and when insufficient knowledge of any of these components exists, the ability to implement adequate mine fire detection systems is diminished. Within the last decade, significant advances have been made in fire detection technology applicable to underground mines. These advances include not only the development of improved sensors and better monitoring systems but also an expanded understanding of how to deploy sensors, set sensor alert/alarm levels, account for ventilation effects, etc. In addition there has been an increase in our knowledge of the types of fires that occur, the types of combustibles involved, characteristic times for fire growth and development, the levels of heat, smoke and gas that are produced and the hazards that result. It is the intent of this paper to provide not only an overview of current mine fire detection technology, but also to describe a framework for the implementation and optimization of this technology. This paper will discuss the data, information, and resources that are currently available and seek to identify those areas most in need of further research and development.
Mining-industry; Ergonomics; Case-studies; Statistical-analysis; Fire-prevention; Fire-protection; Fire-safety; Ventilation-equipment; Ventilation-systems; Warning-devices; Warning-signals; Warning-systems; Disaster-prevention; Detectors; Gas-indicators; Gas-detectors; Smoke-control; Smoke-inhalation
NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236
28th International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, Sinaia, Romania, June 7-11, 1999