Vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride.
Environmental and occupational medicine, third edition. Rom WN, ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippencott-Raven Publishers, 1998 Sep; :1251-1259
The announcement by the B. F. Goodrich Company in early 1974 of several cases of hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) among its polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymerization workers set off a rapid chain of events that had a dramatic impact on the field of occupational health. First, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM: H2C = CHCL), the starting material in the production of PVC resins, to which tens of thousands of workers had been exposed in recent decades, was transformed from a relatively innocuous industrial substance to a carcinogen that produces a fatal malignancy. Second, human epidemiologic data and animal experimental evidence for the carcinogenicity of VCM appeared almost simultaneously, providing definitive results that quickly brought about sharply lower occupational standards and changed industrial and environmental practices in many countries. Third, because of the many consumer uses of VCM and vinyl plastics, concern spread beyond the traditional confines of occupational health to the general public. Several excellent review articles and conference proceedings highlight the multifaceted research stimulated by the first report or RAS induced by VCM (1-6). More recent reviews have focused on the toxicologic and occupational mortality data (7-8). In recent years there has been rapidly expanding knowledge on the mechanisms of carcinogenicity of VCM. This chapter focuses principally on the medical and epidemiologic findings.
Respiratory-system-disorders; Occupational-exposure; Epidemiology; Long-term-exposure; Risk-analysis; Cancer-rates; Carcinogens; Mortality-surveys; Disease-incidence; Lung-cancer; Liver-cancer; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-irritants; Liver-damage; Liver-disorders; Liver-tumors
Environmental and occupational medicine, third edition