Longwall mining operations continue to increase extraction rates and the potential to generate higher amounts of airborne respirable dust (ARD). The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has gathered data from underground longwall surveys and laboratory crushing tests to identify the important factors influencing the amount of ARD levels generated. Coal-seam characteristics, operational parameters (i.e., cut sequence, mining height, etc.), extraction rates and dust control parameters (i.e., airflow, water flow, etc.) were examined to determine their influence on ARD levels measured at longwalls during actual mining operations. ARD generated by a laboratory crusher while crushing bituminous coal samples collected from underground longwalls was also examined to determine if there were correlations with coal-seam properties. Results from the longwall and laboratory data collected indicated that low-ash, high-volatile coals (low moist fuel ratio or MFR coals) generate higher amounts of ARD. It was found that face ventilation and water application to the coal product are essential elements to controlling longwall ARD levels.