Skin failure of roof and rib and support techniques in underground coal mines.
Bauer-ER; Pappas-DM; Dolinar-DR; McCall-FE; Babich-DR
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, August 2-5, 1999, Morgantown, West Virginia. Peng SS, Mark C, eds., Morgantown, WV: West Virginia University, 1999 Aug; :108-114
Skin failures of roof and rib in underground coal mines continue to be a significant safety hazard for mine workers. Skin failures do not usually involve failure of the support systems, but result from rock or coal spalling from between the support elements. For instance, in 1997 more than 800 miners were injured by roof and rib falls, of which 98% were the result of skin failures [Baurer et al. 1999]. Also, nearly 80% of the roof and rib failure injuries occurred at or near the working faces in development stations. The face area is a zone where the potential for skin failure accidents and injuries and for roof and rib failures is high because of mining activity, ground readjustment due to changing stress conditions, and the higher exposure of mine workers. In addition, failures occur where the roof and rib are unsupported. This paper reviews the roof and rib accident statistics resulting from skin failure, and highlights the incidences by type, numbers and percentage, in-mine location, supported and unsupported roof, and worker activity at the time of injury. Also discussed are the caused of roof and rib skin failures, current and improved support methods and materials for skin surface control, and machine design modifications for improved roof bolter operator protection. It also reviews the historical literature on skin failures and control methods.
Mining-industry; Mine-workers; Miners; Accident-analysis; Accident-prevention; Control-technology; Safety-practices; Safety-research; Longwall-mining; Coal-mining; Structural-analysis; Mine-shafts; Performance-capability; Accident-potential; Statistical-analysis; Underground-miners; Underground-mining
Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Ground Control in Mining, August 2-5, 1999, Morgantown, West Virginia