Ultrasonic extraction and portable anodic stripping voltammetric measuremnt of lead in paint, dust wipes, soil, and air: an interlaboratory evaluation.
Ashley-K; Song-R; Esche-CA; Schlecht-PC; Baron-PA; Wise-TJ
J Environ Monit 1999 Oct; 1(5):459-464
Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of ultrasonic extraction (UE), followed by portable anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV), for the on-site determination of lead in environmental and industrial hygiene samples. The aim of this work was to conduct an interlaboratory evaluation of the UE-ASV procedure, with a goal of establishing estimates of method performance based on results from collaborative interlaboratory analysis. In this investigation, performance evaluation materials (PEMs) with characterized lead concentrations were used for interlaboratory testing of the UE-ASV procedure. The UE-ASV protocol examined has been promulgated in the form of two separate national voluntary consensus standards (one for UE and another for electroanalysis, which includes ASV). The PEMs consisted of characterized and homogenized paints, soils, and dusts (the last of which were spiked onto wipes meeting national voluntary consensus standard specifications), and air filter samples (mixed cellulose ester membrane) generated using characterized paints within an aerosol chamber. The lead concentrations within the PEMs were chosen so as to bracket pertinent action levels for lead in the various sample matrices. The interlaboratory evaluation was conducted so as to comply with an applicable national voluntary consensus standard that can be used to estimate the interlaboratory precision of a given analytical test method. Based on the analytical results reported by the participating laboratories, relative standard deviations (RSDs) for repeatability and reproducibility were computed for three different lead contents of the four PEMs. RSDs for repeatability were 0.019-0.100 for paints; 0.030-0.151 for soils; 0.085-0.134 for dust wipes; and 0.095-0.137 for air filters. RSDs for reproducibility were 0.127-0.213 for paints; 0.062-0.162 for soils; 0.085-0.134 for dust wipes; and 0.114-0.220 for air filters. With the exception of one of the air filter samples and one of the paint samples, the precision estimates were within the +/-20% precision requirement specified in the US Environmental Protection Agency National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP). The results of this investigation illustrate that the UE-ASV procedure is an effective method for the quantitative measurement of lead in the matrices evaluated in this study.
Ultrasonic-testing; Lead-compounds; Air-samples; Air-sampling; Airborne-particles; Particulates; Analytical-methods; Air-filters; Breathing-zone Sample-preparation; Atomic-absorption-spectrometry; Samplers; Statistical-analysis
Journal of Environmental Monitoring