Facial anthropometric differences among race/age groups.
Zhuang Z; Viscusi D; Shaffer R; Williams L
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 21-26, 2005, Anaheim, California. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2005 May; :57-58
In a recent anthropometric survey by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2003, a total of 3,997 subjects (2,542 male and 1,455 female) were measured using traditional methods, and 1,013 of them (713 male and 300 female) were also scanned using a 3D head scanner. The subjects were representative of the current U.S. civilian population of respirator wearers age 18 to 66. The subjects were classified into four race groups: White, African-American, Hispanic and Others. Body mass index (BMI), height, weight, neck circumference, and 18 facial dimensions were measured. The objectives of this companion study were to (1) investigate the differences and variances in facial dimensions between gender, race, and age groups and (2) identify typical face sizes/shapes for the development of test head forms. Statistical analyses generated 95% confidence limits for each variable, which allowed observational analysis of overlap between groups and the assignment of a significance indicator (SI). African-Americans' menton-sellion length was on average 4.5 mm longer for males (n=634) and 5.7 mm longer for females (n=589) than the "Others" race group (n=130 for males and 220 for females), which was mainly made up of Asian-Americans. Based on correlation analyses and relevance of some facial dimensions to respirator fit, a subset of 10 facial dimensions were identified for defining a principal component analysis (PCA) model. The PCA model provided a graphical representation of the differences in facial dimensions for gender, race, and age groups. The PCA model was also used to identify typical face sizes/shapes for the development of test head forms. Respirator manufacturers and others can utilize the findings in this study to more appropriately characterize the U.S. workforce for their design applications of respiratory protective devices.
Anthropometry; Demographic-characteristics; Age-factors; Age-groups; Racial-factors; Sex-factors; Statistical-analysis; Face-masks; Face-shields; Models; Respirators; Respiratory-protective-equipment
Research Tools and Approaches: Control Technology and Personal Protective Equipment
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 21-26, 2005, Anaheim, California