Using epidemiologic data for a risk assessment of silica exposure.
Stayner-L; Rice-F; Park-R; Smith-R; Gilbert-S; Checkoway-H
2001 Symposium on Environmental Health and Occupational Risk Assessment, Beijing, China, April 26-28, 2001. Beijing, China: Beijing Municipal Institute of Labor Protection, 26 Apr; :40-46
Silica has been recognized as a cause of respiratory disease since ancient times. Hippocrates described lung disease in miners in approximately 400 B.C. Despite the early recognition of this relationship, silicosis is still a major problem in modern societies around the world. Approximately 200 deaths from silicosis were reported in the U.S. in 1996 (NIOSH 1999). The number of non-fatal cases of silicosis in the U.S. is more difficult to estimate. However, 256 cases of silicoses were identified in 1993 in Illinois, Michigan, New Jersey, North Carolina, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin combined (CDC, 1997). More recently, exposure to silica has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Crystalline silica has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a potential occupational carcinogen since 1988, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified crystalline silica as being carcinogenic to humans (Group I) in 1996 (IARC, 1997). The purpose of our research was to quantitatively estimate the relationship between exposure to silica and the risk of mortality from respirator diseases (cancer and non-cancer) and of morbidity from silicosis using the results from a study of diatomaceous earth workers (Checkoway et al. 1997, and Hughes et al. 1998).
Control-methods; Mortality-surveys; Mortality-rates; Mortality-data; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Respirable-dust; Respiratory-irritants; Respiratory-system-disorders; Silica-dusts; Silicates; Silicosis; Cancer-rates; Cancer; Carcinogens; Lung-cancer; Lung-disease; Lung-disorders; Lung-irritants; Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Long-term-exposure
2001 Symposium on Environmental Health and Occupational Risk Assessment, Beijing, China, April 26-28, 2001