Respiratory diseases of coal miners.
Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine, second edition. Rosenstock L, Cullen M, Brodkin C, Redlich C, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2005 Jan; :393-407
The growth in coal mining was virtually coincident with the Industrial Revolution. Although shallow mining of coal seam outcrops is reported to have occurred since the 9th century, the 18th century brought increased demand for coal as well as the technology to pursue the mining of seams well below the earth's surface. By the early 1800s coal mining had become an important industry both in the United States and abroad. Employment in coal mining peaked about 100 years later in 1923, when over 800,000 coal miners were working in US mines. From that point, although production and consumption of coal continued to increase, mechanization progressively reduced the size of the work force. In 1999, average employment in coal mining work in the US was l08,244, down from 132,535 six years earlier. Between 1993 and 2002, annual US production remained stable at about 1 billion short tons of bituminous and 1.5 million tons of anthracite coal. Currently, about two-thirds of coal production is at surface mines, while about 57% of miners are employed at underground mining operations. The principal US coal deposits are shown in Figure 19.10.1. Coal production has recently been fairly evenly divided between Eastern and Western coalfields, but the proportion of production has been increasing in Western states and now exceeds that of the Appalachian coalfields.
Coal-workers; Coal-miners; Coal-mining; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Underground-miners; Underground-mining; Mining-industry; Miners; Occupational-health; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-exposure; Health-hazards; Workers; Worker-health; Work-environment; Lung-disorders; Lung-disease; Surveillance
Rosenstock-L; Cullen-M; Brodkin-C; Redlich-C
Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine, second edition