Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Huy J; Eschenbacher B
Preventing occupational disease and injury, second edition. Levy BS, Wagner GR, Rest KM, Weeks JL, eds. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 2005 Jan; :256-263
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus included within a subgroup of retroviruses. HIV can cause human infection of varying severity, with the most advanced form of infection referred to as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The diagnosis of HIV infection is made by sequential laboratory tests for detection of HIV antibody; a positive result on an enzyme immunoassay followed by a confirmatory test such as a Western blot or immunofluorescent antibody titer. The CDC recommends HIV testing be expanded to identify more individuals in earlier stages of infection, at which time behavioral changes could be made that would limit the transmission. A newer and more rapid screening test for HIV has been approved by the FDA and could be used in expanded testing programs. The surveillance case definition for AIDS used by the CDC is as follows: Positive evidence for HIV infection and one of the following: (1) CD4+ T-lymphocyte count of <200 cells/L; or (2) one of the identified clinical conditions listed as part of the AIDS surveillance case definition, which include infections such as extrapulmonary coccidioidomycosis or cryptococcosis, tuberculosis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and histoplasmosis, as well as some noninfectious conditions, such as Kaposi's sarcoma, some forms of lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Because of its potential for transmission through a workplace exposure, HIV infection is considered, in part, an occupational illness. This entry focuses on HIV infections that occur in the workplace and the prevention of these infections.
AIDS; AIDS-virus; Acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome; HIV; Infectious-diseases; Infection-control; Viral-diseases; Viral-infections; Bloodborne-pathogens; Personal-protective-equipment; Personal-protection; Protective-clothing; Protective-equipment; Health-care-personnel; Health-care-facilities; Police-officers; Paramedical-services; Fire-fighters; Emergency-responders; Correctional-facilities
Levy BS; Wagner GR; Rest KM; Weeks JL
Preventing occupational disease and injury, second edition