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Cellular responses of the lungs to hyperoxia.
Oxygen/nitrogen radicals: lung injury and disease (Lung biology in health and disease). Vallyathan V, Castranova V, Shi X, eds. New York: Marcel Dekker, 2004 Apr; 187:445-473
Oxygen toxicity is a significant clinical problem encountered during treatment for the most severe cases of respiratory failure. These patients require high concentrations of supplemental oxygen in order to maintain marginally acceptable arterial oxygen saturation. The most severe gas exchange impairments require the highest supplemental oxygen concentrations. The oxygen toxicity problem is serious because the individuals most likely to sustain superimposed hyperoxic pulmonary damage are those least able to tolerate additional gas exchange dysfunction. Oxygen toxicity is a particular concern in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of adults (1,2) and is a factor in long-term therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (3). Hyperoxic injury is also a cause of retinopathy of prematurity and considered an important trigger in bronchopulmonary dysplasia of premature infants (4,5). There has been a rapid expansion of knowledge concerning free radical mechanisms since it was first proposed that free radicals were responsible for the toxicity of oxygen (6). The early studies of pulmonary toxicity from hyperoxia, biochemical mechanisms of hyperoxia, and results from studies of adaptation are reviewed in a previous publication of this series authored by Fanburg and Deneke (7). This chapter will focus on advances in our understanding of hyperoxic injury in the lungs, including identification of critical cells involved in injury, localization of the key antioxidant enzymes, and in vivo experimental interventions that provide information on the critical foci and functions of antioxidant enzymes.
Cellular-reactions; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Oxygen-toxicity; Lung-disorders; Free-radicals; Biochemical-analysis; Antioxidants; In-vivo-studies; Enzymes
Vallyathan-V; Castranova-V; Shi-X
Oxygen/nitrogen radicals: lung injury and disease (Lung biology in health and disease)
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