The conference on Molecular Mechanisms of Metal Toxicity and Carcinogenesis was held at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, West Virginia, from September 8-11, 2002. One hundred thirty scientists from sixteen countries presented their finding and investigations on metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. This conference was an extension of the first one held at the same location from September 10-12, 2000 which brought together outstanding scientists in the area of metal toxicity and carcinogenesis. The conference focused on the latest developments concerning the molecular mechanisms of metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. The major topic of the meting included general chemistry and biochemistry of metal-compounds, mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity, gene expression, signal transduction, cell growth regulation, apoptosis, molecular biomarkers, and molecular risk assessment. The conference also discussed research opportunities, challenges and needs for elucidation of mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenesis in the post-genomesequencing era. We would like to thank the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration for financial support of this conference. We would also like to thank Elementis Chromium, Corpus, TX, Nickel Producers Environmental Research Association, Durham, NC, and Metalloproteomics, LLC, Chesterfield, MO for financial support. We express our thanks to the conference participants and those assisted for the organization and implementation of the conference and in the publication of this focused issue.