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Selective changes in gene expression in cortical regions sensitive to amphetamine during the neurodegenerative process.
Bowyer JF; Harris AJ; Delongchamp RR; Jakab RL; Miller DB; Little AR; O'Callaghan JP
Neurotoxicology 2004 Jun; 25(4):555-572
Gene expression profiles in several brain regions of adult male rats were evaluated following a d-amphetamine (AMPH) exposure paradigm previously established to produce AMPH neurotoxicity. Escalating doses of AMPH (5-30 mg/kg) were given over the course of 16 h per day in an 18 degrees C environment for 2 days. This paradigm produces neurotoxicity but eliminates or minimizes the hyperthermia and seizure activity that might influence gene expression in a manner unrelated to the neurotoxic effects of AMPH. The expression of 1185 genes was monitored in the striatum, parietal cortex, piriform cortex and posteriolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus (PLCo) using cDNA array technology, and potentially significant changes were verified by RT-PCR. Gene expression was determined at time points after AMPH when neurodegeneration was beginning to appear (16 h) or maximal (64 h). Expression was also determined 14 days after AMPH to find long-term changes in gene expression that might be biomarkers of a neurotoxic event. In the parietal cortex there was a two-fold increase in neuropeptide Y precursor protein mRNA whereas nerve growth factor-induced receptor protein I-A and I-B mRNA decreased 50% at 16 h after the end of AMPH exposure. Although these changes in expression were not observed in the PLCo, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 mRNA was increased two-fold in the PLCo at 16 and 64 h after AMPH. Changes in gene expression in the cortical regions were all between 1.2- and 1.5-fold 14 days after AMPH but some of these changes, such as annexin V increases, may be relevant to neurotoxicity. Gene expression was not affected by more than 1.5-fold at the time points in the striatum, although 65% dopamine depletions occurred, but the plasma membrane-associated dopamine transporter and dopamine D2 receptor were decreased about 40% in the substantia nigra at 64 h and 14 days post-AMPH. Thus, the 2-day AMPH treatment produced a few changes in gene expression in the two-fold range at time points 16 h or more after exposure but the majority of expression changes were less than 1.5-fold of control. Nonetheless, some of these lesser fold-changes appeared to be relevant to the neurotoxic process.
Genes; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Exposure-levels; Neurotoxicity; Neurotoxic-effects; Biomarkers; Author Keywords: Amphetamine; Gene expression; Neurodegeneration
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