In vitro genotoxicity of exhaust emissions of diesel and gasoline engine vehicles operated on a unified driving cycle.
Liu-Y; Keane-M; Ensell-M; Miller-W; Kashon-M; Ong-T; Mauderly-J; Lawson-D; Gautam-M; Zielinska-B; Whitney-K; Eberhardt-J; Wallace-W
J Environ Monit 2005 Jan; 7(1):60-66
Acetone extracts of engine exhaust particulate matter (PM) and of vapor-phase semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) collected from a set of 1998-2000 model year normal emitter diesel engine automobile or light trucks and from a set of 1982-1996 normal emitter gasoline engine automobiles or light trucks operated on the California Unified Driving Cycle at 22 degrees-C were assayed for in vitro genotoxic activities. Gasoline and diesel PM were comparably positive mutagens for Salmonella typhimurium strains YG1024 and YG1029 on a mass of PM extract basis with diesel higher on a mileage basis; gasoline SVOC was more active than diesel on an extracted-mass basis, with diesel SVOC more active on a mileage basis. For chromosomal damage indicated by micronucleus induction in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells), diesel PM expressed about one-tenth that of gasoline PM on a mass of extract basis, but was comparably active on a mileage basis; diesel SVOC was inactive. For DNA damage in V79 cells indicated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay, gasoline PM was positive while diesel PM was active at the higher doses; gasoline SVOC was active with toxicity preventing measurement at high doses, while diesel SVOC was inactive at all but the highest dose.
In-vitro-studies; Genotoxic-effects; Diesel-exhausts; Diesel-emissions; Organic-compounds; Models; Automotive-engines; Automotive-emissions; Automotive-exhausts; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Particulates; Particulate-dust
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1095 Willowdale Rd., Morgantown, WV 26505
Journal of Environmental Monitoring
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