Polyisocyanates in occupational environments: a critical review of exposure limits and metrics.
Bello-D; Woskie-SR; Streicher-RP; Liu-Y; Stowe-M; Eisen-EA; Ellenbecker-MJ; Sparer-J; Youngs-F; Cullen-MR; Redlich-CA
Am J Ind Med 2004 Nov; 46(5):480-491
Determination of polyisocyanates is important because they are a major contributor of exposure to the isocyanate functional group in many workplace environments and are capable of inducing sensitization and asthma. However, with multiple different measurement metrics in use, comparison of isocyanate exposure data between studies and development of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for polyisocyanates is difficult. An analysis of existing problems in the measurement and regulation of isocyanates is presented based on the published analytical, toxicological, and regulatory literature, and the authors' own analytical data and experience with isocyanates. This analysis supports a need for standardization of isocyanate measurement metrics and provides a framework for the development of an OEL for polyisocyanates. The total isocyanate group (g NCO/m3) is recommended as the most feasible and practical metric (unit) by which to express polyisocyanate exposures for research, control, and regulatory purposes. The establishment of a comprehensive isocyanate OEL that simplifies the current agent-by-agent approach and expands coverage to polyisocyanates is also recommended.
Isocyanates; Occupational-exposure; Work-environment; Sensitization; Bronchial-asthma; Exposure-limits; Exposure-levels; Reproductive-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders
Dhimiter Bello, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Work Environment Department, KI 200, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854.
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods; Disease and Injury: Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Yale University, New Haven, CT