Comparison of three methods for assessment of hand exposure to azinphos-methyl (guthion) during apple thinning.
Fenske-RA; Simcox-NJ; Camp-JE; Hines-CJ
Appl Occup Environ Hyg 1999 Sep; 14(9):618-623
Hand exposures of apple thinners to the pesticide azinphos-methyl (Guthion) were measured using three methods (glove, handwash, and wipe). Hand exposure sampling for each method was conducted following apple thinning work for a period of two hours for six to eight workers. Foliar residue samples were collected on each day of hand exposure sampling in the same orchard blocks that were thinned; foliar residues are considered to have been constant during the four-day study, which took place, on average, six days after pesticide application. Hand exposure estimates derived from each of the three methods differed significantly (ANOVA: p < 0.001). Mean measured exposure rates for the glove, handwash, and wipe methods were 6.48, 1.83, and 0.28 mg/hr, respectively. A corrected estimate of hand exposure, 2.7 mg/hr, was calculated from the handwash measurements and the handwash removal efficiency factor from a laboratory study. Comparison with this hand exposure estimate suggests that the glove method produced a 2.4-fold overestimate of exposure, whereas the wipe method produced a 10-fold underestimate. Studies that measure hand exposure to pesticides should include a careful description of sampling methods and should recognize the potential for measurement bias. Furthermore, the standardization and validation of dermal exposure assessment methods are critical to developing more comparable and more accurate pesticide exposure estimates.
Exposure-assessment; Pesticides; Hand-protection; Gloves; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Exposure-levels; Agricultural-workers; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals
Neurotoxic Disorders; Neurotoxic-effects
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington