On May 29, 2003, a 23-year-old male Hispanic pipe layer (the victim) died after being struck by the bucket teeth of an excavator (track hoe). The victim, and a crew of four other workers were installing concrete drain pipe alongside a public roadway. The excavator operator was reportedly in the process of extending the trench for the accommodation of another 8-foot section of the pipe. When making the cut, the bucket teeth struck the victim at the right-side chest and neck area, causing nearly immediate fatal injuries. Emergency medical service (EMS) and the local fire department were notified and responded within minutes. The victim was pronounced dead at the scene. NIOSH investigators concluded that to help prevent similar occurrences, employers should: 1. instruct excavator equipment operators to ensure that the area is clear of workers before moving the machine; 2. ensure that safety instructions included in the manufacturer's operator's manual are followed; 3. ensure that a signal person or spotter is used when moving, swinging, or operating the excavating machinery in trenching operations; and, 4. develop, implement and enforce a comprehensive safety training program in language(s) and literacy level(s) that all workers understand that includes, but is not limited to, hazard recognition training, avoidance of unsafe work conditions and safe trenching procedures.