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Epidemiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.
Hales TR; Bernard BP
Orthop Clin North Am 1996 Oct; 27(4):679-709
Musculoskeletal disorders are common in the United States. Although precise estimates are not available, most researchers agree that exposure to a combination of work place risk factors is a major contributor to these disorders. Along with personal factors (age, gender, etc.). Epidemiologic studies of workers have associated these disorders with many work-place physical and psychosocial factors. Specific physical factors associated with these disorders include intense, repeated, or sustained exertions, awkward, sustained, or extreme postures of the body, insufficient recovery time, vibration, and cold temperatures. Specific examples of work-place psychosocial factors include monotonous work, time pressure, high work load, lack of peer support, and a poor supervisor-employee relationship.
Epidemiology; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Occupational-exposure; Exposure-assessment; Risk-factors; Risk-analysis; Demographic-characteristics; Age-factors; Sex-factors; Racial-factors
Issue of Publication
Orthopedic Clinics of North America
Page last reviewed: November 13, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division