Toxicity of inhaled (91)YCL3 in dogs.
Muggenburg-BA; Boecker-BB; Hubbs-AF; Hahn-FF; Snipes-MB; Diel-JH; Newton-GJ; Griffith-WC
Radiat Res 1998 Aug; 150(2):212-226
This study was conducted in dogs to determine the toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3, which is of interest because 91Y is a fission-product radionuclide that is abundant in a reactor inventory after sustained operation. Yttrium-91 has a short half-life, 59 days, and decays with the emission of beta particles and low-yield gamma rays. The study was conducted in 58 beagle dogs with equal numbers of males and females. Forty-six dogs inhaled the 91YCl3 aerosol, while 12 served as controls. Four exposure levels were used. To determine the long-term retained burden (LTRB) of 91Y, each dog was periodically whole-body counted and its excreta were analyzed radiochemically. Over time, the 91Y transferred from the lung primarily to the skeleton and liver. The dogs were observed over their life spans for biological effects. Fatal hematological dyscrasia occurred from 12 to 33 days after exposure in the dogs with the highest LTRBs. Bone-associated tumors of the nasal and oral mucosae occurred in 5 dogs from 2000 to 5800 days after they inhaled the 91YCl3 aerosols. Five dogs died with malignant lung tumors and 2 dogs with malignant liver tumors. The results of this study were compared to those from similar studies in beagles that inhaled 90SrCl2 or 144CeCl3 or were injected with 137CsCl. The comparison showed that the biological effects in each study were clearly dependent on the cumulative doses to critical organs.
Animal-studies; Animals; Toxins; Toxicology; Toxic-vapors; Toxic-gases; Toxic-effects; Radionuclides; Aerosols; Lung; Lung-disorders; Lung-disease; Lung-function; Lung-irritants; Lung-burden; Tumors; Skeletal-disorders; Skeletal-system; Skeletal-defects; Liver-damage; Liver-disorders; Laboratory-animals; In-vivo-study