Cutting fluids are widely used in the metal-machining industry to lubricate and reduce heat generation when metals are cut by a metal-cutting tool. Unfortunately, these cutting fluids have caused occupational contact irritant dermatitis (OCID), and many of the additives used in these cutting fluid mixtures are thought to be responsible for OCID in workers. The purpose of this study was to assess single or various combinations of these additives in initiating the OCID response following an acute 8 hr exposure in porcine skin in vivo and in vitro using the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF). Pigs (n=4) were exposed to 5% mineral oil (MO) or 5% polyethylene glycol (PEG) aqueous mixtures containing various combinations of 2% triazine (TRI), 5% triethanolamine (TEA), 5% linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), or 5% sulfurized ricinoleic acid (SRA). Erythema and edema were evaluated and skin biopsies for histology were obtained at 4 and 8 hrs. IPPSF's (n=4) were exposed to control MO or PEG mixtures and complete MO or PEG mixtures, and perfusate samples were collected hourly to determine IL-8 release. The only significant mixture effects were SRA+MO+LAS+TRI+TEA causing an increase in IL-8 release. Exposure to TRI alone appeared to increase erythema, edema, and dermal inflammation compared to the other additives, while SRA alone was least likely to initiate a dermal inflammatory response. In 2-component mixture exposures, the presence of TRI appeared to increase the dermal inflammatory response at 4 and 8 hrs especially with the PEG mixtures. In the 3- and 4-component mixtures, MO mixtures are more likely to incite an inflammatory response than PEG mixtures. In summary, these preliminary studies suggest that the biocide, TRI, is the more potent of the 4 performance additives in causing dermal irritation, and this may vary depending on whether the worker is exposed to a synthetic- or MO-based fluid.
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