The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 (US CODE, 42) is a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution to protect human health and the environment. A practical, inexpensive, green chemical process for degrading environmental pollutants is greatly needed, especially for persistent chlorinated pollutants. Chlorophenols (CP) have been widely used as components of pesticides, disinfectants, wood preservatives, personal care formulations, and many other products, and they are substantial by-products of wood pulp bleaching with chlorine. A newly developed chemical protocol for degradation of pentachorophenol (PCP) and 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol (TCP) using iron complexes of tetraamidomacrocyclic ligand-Fe-TAML activators was successfully applied for rapid total destruction of CP. Introduction of novel Fe-TAML chemical catalysts into industry requires evaluation of their safety and understanding of the impact on the environment, biological species, and human health. The present study investigated cytotoxic effects of Fe-TAML using human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Free radical production was assessed by ESR-detectable ascorbate radicals. GSH content in cells was evaluated by measurements of its content in cells lysates using a specific maleimide reagent, ThioGlo-1 TM . Additionally, fluorescent imaging of GSH-ThioGlo-1 adducts in cells was performed using a Nikon TE-200 system. Cell viability was estimated by Alamar Blue-based assay. After 8-18 hr of Fe-TAML exposure in the presence of H 2 O 2 , oxidant generation and cellular toxicity (as indicated by the formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability) was detected. Exposure to Fe-TAML alone did not induce either oxidative stress or cytotoxicity in HaCaT cultured cells. These data indicated that exposure to Fe-TAML can cause accelerated oxidative stress and toxicity to skin only in the presence of H2O2.
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