Carbon nanotube exposure caused formation of free radicals, induction of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells.
Kisin-E; Murray-AR; Schwegler-Berry-D; Gandelsman-VZ; Ganther-MR; Castranova-V; Shvedova-AA
Toxicologist 2004 Mar; 78(S-1):305
Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are being evaluated for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin and lung diseases, e.g., carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, naevi, asthma, COPD, pneumoconiosis and cancer. However, the potential toxicity of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has yet to be completely evaluated. The present study investigated adverse effects of SWCNT using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) or bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Exposure to SWCNT resulted in ultra-structural and morphological changes in cultured human cells. Treatment of keratinocytes and bronchial epithelial cells with SWCNT for 18 hr caused oxidative stress and cellular toxicity indicated by the formation of hydroxyl radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, loss of cell viability and apoptosis. These data suggest that dermal and respiratory exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal and pulmonary toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress.
Oxidative-processes; Stress; Electronics-industry; Aerospace-industry; Computers; Exposure-levels; Skin-diseases; Lung-disease; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-system-disorders; Dermatitis; Bronchial-asthma; Pneumoconiosis; Cancer; Nanotechnology
Disease and Injury: Allergic and Irritant Dermatitis
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 43nd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 21-25, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland