Urinary 3-bromopropionic acid: an effective gas chromatographic test method for quantification.
B'Hymer C; Cheever KL
Toxicologist 2004 Mar; 78(S-1):178
3-Bromopropionic acid is a metabolite and possible biomarker for exposure to 1-bromopropane. 1-Bromopropane is used as an industrial solvent and exposure is a health concern for industrial workers due to its toxicity. Central neurological disorders and peripheral neuropathy has been reported in workers chronically exposed to materials composed of 1-bromopropane in the United States and animal studies have shown reproductive toxicity. Occupational exposure to this widely used industrial solvent is likely, since it is readily absorbed through the skin. A simple and effective general test method for 3-bromopropionic acid in urine samples was developed to monitor any exposed population. Urine specimens were first spiked with 3-chloropropionic acid which was used as a procedural internal standard. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate, concentrated, and treated with N-methyl-N-[ tert-butyldimethylsilyl] trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) to produce the corresponding t-butyldimethylsilane derivatives of 3-bromopropionic acid and the internal standard. Quantification was by means of a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass selective detector (MSD) using a 50-m X 0.20-mm (id) HP-1 capillary column. A temperature program of 60 to 255C was used for the gas chromatographic measurement. Ion m/z 211 was monitored for the derivative of 3-bromopropionic acid and ion m/z 165 was monitored for the internal standard. Average recovery of known 3-bromopropionic acid fortified blank urine samples was between 93-98% with relative standard deviations as high as 5.7% using samples at 3-bromopropionic concentrations of 2, 10, 20 and 50 ug/ml. The limit of detection (LOD) for the developed procedure was found to be approximately 0.01 ug/ml in urine.
Acids; Gas-chromatography; Biomarkers; Exposure-levels; Solvents; Toxic-gases; Toxic-effects; Health-hazards; Neurological-diseases; Occupational-hazards; Occupational-exposure; Skin-infections; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Sampling
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 43nd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 21-25, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland