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Evaluation of the contact hypersensitivity-inducing potential of a commercial weapon cleaning and maintenance compound.

Azadi-S; Arfsten-DP; Meade-BJ
Toxicologist 2004 Mar; 78(S-1):45
Commercial cleaning, lubricating, and preserving compounds are used in both the military and civilian sectors for maintenance of small and large caliber weapons. The cleaning of weapons is a very labor intensive, hands-on operation and frequent, repeated dermal contact with materials used in weapons maintenance is highly probable. Cleaning compounds are usually complex mixtures containing many constituents including polyalphaolefin oil, synthetic oils, esters, isoparaffinic hydrocarbons, and dibasic ester, some of which have the potential for being dermal sensitizers. These studies assessed the irritant and sensitizing potential of a weapon cleaning compound using a modified local lymph node assay (LLNA) and phenotypic analysis (PA) of draining lymph node cells. Female BALB/c mice (n=5) were topically exposed on the dorsal ear pinna for 3 (LLNA) or 4 (PA) consecutive days. In the LLNA, mice were injected i.v. with 3H-thymidine on day 6 and draining lymph nodes were radioassayed. Ear thickness was measured using a micrometer prior to sacrifice to evaluate irritancy. For PA, on day 10 post initial exposure, draining lymph node cells were stained with FITC labeled rat anti-mouse IgE or PE labeled rat anti-mouse CD45 B220. Blood was collected at the time of sacrifice for analysis of total serum IgE. The compound induced a dose-responsive increase in lymph node cell proliferation with the neat material resulting in a stimulation index of 13.4. PA demonstrated an elevation in B220+ cells. No increase in total serum IgE was detected. Animals exhibited thickened skin and hair loss at the site of exposure and a 42.5% increase in ear swelling was observed in animals exposed to the neat material as compared to controls 3 days following the final exposure. These studies indicate the potential for the compound tested to induce contact sensitization with no evidence of an IgE inducing potential.
Hypersensitivity; Cleaning-compounds; Esters; Oils; Hydrocarbons; Sensitization; Lymph-nodes; Exposure-levels; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies
Publication Date
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NIOSH Division
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The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 43nd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 21-25, 2004, Baltimore, Maryland
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division