American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 8-13, 2004, Atlanta, Georgia. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2004 May; :89
1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting solvents and suspect carcinogens and is in aerosols, adhesives, and solvents used for metal, precision, and electronics cleaning. Toxicity of 1-BP is poorly understood, but it may be a neurologic, reproductive, and hematologic toxin. Sparse exposure information prompted NIOSH to conduct an exposure assessment using air sampling, exhaled breath, and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving removal of bromide from the propyl group. One research objective is to evaluate the utility of urinary bromide analysis for assessing 1-BP exposure using a relatively inexpensive method commercially available. Complete 48-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers on 2 consecutive days at facilities using 1-BP adhesives to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions and from 7 unexposed controls. All of the workers’ urine was collected into composite samples representing 3 daily time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon wake-up. After collection, urine aliquots were dispensed into acid-rinsed Nalgene bottles and analyzed for bromide (Br) by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Full-shift breathing zone samples were collected for 1-BP on Anasorb-CMS sorbent tubes and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection via NIOSH method 1025. Breathing zone concentrations of 1-BP ranged from 45-200 ppm for adhesive sprayers and from 0.8-60 ppm for other jobs. For sprayers, urinary Br concentrations ranged from 77-542 mg/g-creatinine (cr) at work, from 58-308 mg/g-cr after work, and from 43-672 mg/g-cr in wake-up samples. Overall, urinary Br concentrations for sprayers were substantially more than for the nonsprayers and controls, with geometric means of 166, 38, and 3.8 mg/g-cr, respectively. This study demonstrates that urinary elimination is an important excretion pathway for 1-BP metabolism and bromide may be a useful indicator of exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 8-13, 2004, Atlanta, Georgia