Handwipe disclosing method for the presence of lead.
Ashley-K; Boeniger-M; Esswein-E
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 8-13, 2004, Atlanta, Georgia. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2004 May; :32
A new National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health method for detecting lead contamination on surfaces is described. A wetted wipe is used to collect dust on surfaces that potentially contain lead. Lead in dust collected on the wipe is extracted using an aqueous acidic solution, such as diluted acetic acid (vinegar) or highly diluted nitric acid. The wipe is then treated with an aqueous solution of rhodizonic acid in order to test for the presence of lead. A characteristic color of pink or red is indicative of a positive test for lead. The procedure is best performed using spray bottles containing extraction solution and indicator solution, respectively; a fine spray is preferred. The estimated identification limit of the method, when using vinegar for extraction, is about 10-15 micrograms of lead per wipe sample. Matrix effects and potential interferences must be taken into consideration when using the procedure. As a screening technique, the method is suitable for testing surfaces such as floors, walls, window sills, car interiors, and skin. The method is especially useful for detecting the presence of lead on skin and assessing the effectiveness of hand washing in removing lead from the hands of exposed individuals. Also, the method is particularly useful in field evaluation for the presence of lead in dust, and the effectiveness of its subsequent removal in the workplace, home, school, or other environments.
Lead-compounds; Lead-poisoning; Lead-dust; Dust-analysis; Dust-collection; Dust-sampling; Dusts; Sampling-methods; Sampling; Skin-tests; Skin-exposure; Environmental-factors
Research Tools and Approaches: Exposure Assessment Methods
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, May 8-13, 2004, Atlanta, Georgia