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Environmental airway injury.
The Airway Epithelium. Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacology. Vol. 55, New York: Marcel Dekker, 55:213-253
Environmental or occupational airway disorders are common worldwide and are most prevalent in overpopulated or heavily industrialized urban areas. Hundreds of different agents have been associated with these disorders which affect millions of people. Perhaps the most common type of these disorders is so-called occupational, or environmentally related asthma, which affects more than a million people in the United States (Salvaggio, 1982). The importance of this problem is further enhanced by the fact that it is a preventable and reversible disease. In certain situations, however, particularly those related to the isocyanates or to western red cedar, the disorder may persist for months or years after the last exposure. Agents that have been linked to this type of asthma can be classified into three broad categories (Moller et al., 1986): large molecular weight biological substances, small molecular weight chemicals, and various fumes or gases. Biological agents include dusts from animal danders and secretions, insects and crustaceans, vegetable gums, and plant bacterial enzymes. The pathogenesis of asthma associated with these substances mayor may not relate to their stimulating 19B-mediated reactions when inhaled. Small molecular weight chemicals linked with asthma include isocyanates, acid anhydrides, platinum, and resin. The pathogenesis of environmentally related asthma caused by these agents and to various fumes and gases remains controversial in most instances. Because of increasing air pollution and steadily rising industrial use of a wide variety of potentially harmful agents, especially oxidants, these environmental health hazards represent serious public health concerns.
Pulmonary-system-disorders; Respiratory-irritants; Lung-irritants; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Animals; Respiratory-system-disorders; Respiratory-hypersensitivity
Book or book chapter
The Airway Epithelium. Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacology
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio
Page last reviewed: September 2, 2020
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division