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Methods of evaluating explosive reactivity of explosive-contaminated solid waste substances.
Bajpayee TS; Mainiero RJ
Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes, second edition. Gilliam TM, Wiles CC eds. West Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), 1992 Jan; 2:378-384
The U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) has developed test procedures and criteria for evaluating explosive reactivity of explosive-contaminated solid waste substances generated by U.S. Army ammunition plants. These substances are produced as explosive-contaminated sludge from waste water treatment plants, residues from the burning of munitions and explosives on open ground, and residues from the deactivation furnaces. The characterization of explosive reactivity is a prerequisite for disposal of such waste materials, which may be contaminated with primary explosives, propellants, or pyrotechnic materials. The USBM has proposed two tests for this purpose. These tests were developed to evaluate the explosive reactivity as defined in 40 CFR 261.23(a)(6) and (7). These are gap and internal ignition tests, which determine the sensitivity to shock and thermal stimuli, respectively. This paper also includes gap and internal ignition reference data for typical blasting agents, high explosives, propellants, and marginally reactive substances. These reference data were used to establish test criteria. The USBM has evaluated more than 400 samples of contaminated soil, sludge, and burning residues using these two test methods.
Detonation; Explosion; Explosives; Gap-test; Internal-ignition-test; Munitions; Reactivity; Solid-waste; Blasting-agents
NIOSH Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 18070, Pittsburgh, PA 15236
Book or book chapter
Gilliam TM; Wiles CC
Stabilization and solidification of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes, second edition
Page last reviewed: June 15, 2021
Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Education and Information Division