Role of reactive oxygen species and Cr(VI) in Ras-mediated signal transduction.
Wang-S; Leonard-SS; Ye-J; Gao-N; Wang-L; Shi-X
Mol Cell Biochem 2004 Jan; 255(1-2):119-127
Previous studies have shown that a constitutively active isoform of Ras is able to produce superoxide radical (O2(-)). The present study investigate the mechanisms by which O2(-) radical mediates signals from Ras protein to the nucleus, leading to cellular responses such as apoptosis in Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. Two human prostate tumor cell lines, Ras(+), which overexpresses Ras, and Ras(-), which has a normal Ras level, were utilized. Compared to Ras(-) cells, Ras(+) cells exhibited higher susceptibility to apoptosis induced by Cr(VI). Catalase, sodium formate, and deferoxamine inhibited Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis. Similar differences were observed in both cellular DNA damage and the activation of p53 protein. The differences in Cr(VI)-induced cell responses in Ras(+) and Ras(-) cells were due to differences in the generation of free radicals between these two cells. ESR spin trapping measurements showed that Ras(+) cells generated more hydroxyl radical ((.)OH), O2(-) radical, and Cr(V) than Ras(-) cells following Cr(VI) stimulation. The generation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be abolished by the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or if the experiment were carried out in an argon atmosphere. Catalase inhibited spin adduct signals but was much less potent than SOD. The mechanism of ROS generation in Cr(VI)-stimulated Ras(+) cells involves the reduction of molecular oxygen to O2(-) radical by a flavoenzyme-containing NADPH oxidase complex as shown by oxygen consumption and diphenylene iodonium (DPI) inhibition. Results shown above support the following conclusions: (a) Ras protein mediates O2(-) radical generation through reduction of molecular oxygen by NADPH oxidase in Cr(VI)-stimulated cells. (b) The O2(-) radical and Cr(VI) produce other reactive species, including H2O2, OH radical, and Cr(V) through O2(-) dismutation and Haber-Weiss type of reactions. (c) Among these reactive species, (.)OH radical is responsible for the further transduction of signals from Ras to the nucleus, leading to various cell responses.
Oncogenic-agents; Cellular-reactions; Tumors; Humans; Catalysis; Sodium-compounds; Protein-biochemistry; Free-radicals; Measurement-equipment
Pathology and Physiology Research Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Morgantown, WV 26505, USA
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry