Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), including low back and upper extremity disorders, represent one of the greatest work-related health concerns facing industrialized nations. Recently, two national groups were charged with developing research agendas aimed at increasing our knowledge of the prevention of these disorders. The first agenda, developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health's (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) MSD team, was based on input from several hundred practitioners and safety and health experts representing industry, labor, and academia. The second agenda, developed by the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) National Panel on Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace, was based on input from leading researchers in the fields of medicine, information science, and ergonomics. This paper summarizes the findings of the two groups and compares the two research agendas.