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Reproductive factors and risk of glioma in women.
Huang K; Whelan EA; Ruder AM; Ward EM; Deddens J; Davis-King KE; Carreon T; Waters MA; Butler MA; Calvert GM; Schulte P; Zivkovich Z; Heineman E; Mandel J; Morton R; Reding D; Rosenman K; Brain Cancer Collaborative Study Group
Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 94th Annual Meeting, July 11-14, 2003, Washington, DC. 2nd edition. Philadelphia, PA: American Association for Cancer Research, 2003 Jul; 44:1365
Reproductive hormones may play a role in the development of glioma in women, but few studies have examined this association. As part of a population-based case control study, histologically confirmed primary glioma cases (n=341 women) diagnosed between 1995 and 1997 were identified through clinics and hospitals in four Midwest U.S. states. Controls (n=528 women) were randomly selected from lists of licensed drivers and Health Care Finance Administration enrollees. In-person interviews with subjects (81%) or their proxies (19%) collected reproductive history and other exposure information. Glioma risk increased with older age at menarche (p for trend = 0.0076), but only among post-menopausal women. Among pre-menopausal women, those who had ever experienced a live birth were over two times as likely to be diagnosed with glioma than were nulliparous women (odds ratio (OR)=2.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.3-5.3). Compared with women who breastfed 1-3 months over their lifetime, women who breastfed 4-8, 9-18 or 18 months were at increased risk (OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.7-3.9; OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.5; OR=4.6, 95% CI=2.1-10.2; respectively) (p for trend=0.0008). Women who used hormones for symptoms of menopause had a significantly decreased risk of glioma compared with women who never used such hormones (OR=0.6; 95% CI=0.4-0.9). A high cumulative number of menstruation months (438) was also associated with a reduced risk of glioma (OR=0.6, 95% CI=0.3-1.3). Our results support the hypothesis that reproductive hormones play a role in the etiology of glioma among women, with a pattern of associations that is almost the inverse of that observed for breast cancer.
Brain-tumors; Brain-matter; Brain-function; Brain-disorders; Farmers; Histology; Central-nervous-system; Neurotoxicity; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Sex-factors; Hormones; Hormone-activity; Endocrine-system; Endocrine-function; Endocrine-system-disorders; Pesticides; Pesticide-residues; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Demographic-characteristics; Agricultural-chemicals; Reproductive-effects; Reproductive-hazards
Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 94th Annual Meeting, July 11-14, 2003, Washington, DC. 2nd edition
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